Gus Van Sant has never been a risk-averse filmmaker, but he directs his Harvey Milk biopic so carefully, there might be a Ming vase balanced on his head. Van Sant's steps are deliberate, his posture is straight, his attitude is responsible, and his eyes are fixed firmly on the prize. No less cautious, Sean Penn plays Milk (1930–78), the martyred gay activist and San Francisco supervisor, with the concentration of an actor entrusted to portray the future subject of a U.S. postage stamp.

Opening in theaters 30 years after Milk and San Francisco Mayor George Moscone were gunned down in City Hall by another supervisor, ex-cop Dan White, Van Sant's Milk is narrated by Harvey Milk from beyond the grave — less an exercise in fatalism than a way of giving collective history an engagingly Noo Yawk accent. Working from a detailed script by documentarian Dustin Lance Black, Van Sant streamlines Milk's life, simplifying his trajectory from closeted Wall Street zero to Castro Street hero. On the eve of his 40th birthday, Milk picks up cute hippie Scott Smith (James Franco) leaving a NY subway and, after a romantic evening in tight close-up, effectively joins the counterculture, growing his hair and eloping with Smith to San Francisco. There, they open the Castro Camera Shop. When some cheerful canoodling prompts a local Chamber of Commerce type to blackball the enterprise, an activist is born: "We'll form our own business association!"

This ringing declaration serves to announce San Francisco's new gay district as an autonomous region, with the Castro Camera Shop as its epicenter. It also allows the filmmakers to portray the burgeoning Castro as a function of Milk's own political development. Milk organizes against police harassment and, allied with progressive elements in the Teamsters union, helps ban right-wing elixir Coors from the Castro's bars. After San Francisco's most powerful gay figure advises Harvey to simmer down, the irrepressible entrepreneur appoints himself Mayor of Castro Street, hopping on an actual soapbox to capture the attention of an unruly crowd: "My fellow degenerates." Losing a run for San Francisco's Board of Supervisors, Milk cuts his hair, shaves his beard and loses again, promptly launching an equally quixotic primary challenge against local state assemblyman and future mayor Art Agnos (Jeff Koons, no less).

Scarcely less indefatigable, Penn is present in nearly every scene. His marked resemblance to Milk — hawkish profile, mask-of-comedy smile — is matched by an understanding of his gregarious character's political gifts. (Like Harvey, Penn has no difficulty milking it.) More hearty frontier settlement than drag- and disco-fueled den of depravity, the Castro blossoms in the warmth of Milk's sunny personality. A thousand flowers bloom: Abandoned by the long-suffering Smith, Milk gets a new campaign manager, self-described "tough dyke" Anne Kronenberg (pert Alison Pill); a new lover, Jack Lira (adorable Diego Luna); and, finally, a seat on the Board of Supervisors.

Happy, flirtatious and paternal, Milk was able to play politics both inside City Hall and out in the streets. San Francisco is the city that Republicans love to hate and Milk turns grandly world-historical once the campaign launched by homophobic Christian crusader and Moral Majority avatar Anita Bryant arrives in the form of Proposition 6, an initiative to purge gay teachers (and their supporters) from public schools. The new supervisor finds himself on the front line of the Culture Wars, face to face with evil twin Dan White (Josh Brolin).

A beleaguered personification of "family values," White is the film's most complex character, after Milk. That their death match embodies a civil war in the American psyche is implicit in the script's suggestion that White's rage — as well as his fascination with Harvey — is fueled by repressed homosexuality. As Milk grows in stature, assembling a statewide coalition against Prop. 6 and challenging the proposition's local sponsor, state Senator John Briggs, to a series of debates, White goes increasingly nuts. White's lethal freakout came 10 days after the S.F.-based People's Temple imploded in Guyana.

Rob Epstein and Richard Schmiechen's groundbreaking 1984 documentary, The Times of Harvey Milk, spent a third of its length on White's murder trial, including powerful footage of the flaming riots that greeted White's conviction on a lesser charge of manslaughter. Van Sant prefers to show a community together. He doesn't avert his gaze from Milk's death but he wraps it in a comforter of last-day reconciliations, romantic flashbacks and ethereal patriotic music. Corny as it is, Van Sant's ending still packs a wallop. The 1978 victory over Prop. 6 merges with the current struggle against California's Proposition 8, overturning the state Supreme Court's ruling on same-sex marriage. A charismatic leader has yet to emerge but there is ... Milk, and its wholehearted devotion to the principle of equal protection under the law.

Van Sant and Black position Milk as both gutsy civil rights leader and creative community organizer — not to mention a precedent-shattering politician who, it's very often reiterated, presented himself as a messenger of hope. Milk is now.

When The Times of Harvey Milk won its Oscar for best documentary, presenter Kathleen Turner described it as "a film about American values in conflict." This time, the Academy won't have to be as discreet.


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